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高血壓模型飼料與復制模型方法

高血壓模型不僅與鈉有關,而且與多種營養素如缺鈣、缺鎂、缺精氨酸、缺蛋白質,以及營養相關性疾病關系密切,特別是肥胖等。因此,研究骨質疏松癥時建立模型要根據研究目的選擇飼料。

常用的高血壓模型飼料
文獻綜述
www.ytdsyjtsc.com
2012年7月1日出版

高血壓模型與飼料

(Hypertension model and model diet)
南通特洛菲飼料科技有限公司技術部 綜述

高血壓的病因涉及基因、環境和飲食多方面的因素。在飲食方面,很多因素都可以成為高血壓的原因,廣為人知的高鈉(高鹽)飲食只是其中的一個因素,其他因素還包括缺鈣、缺鎂、缺鉀、低蛋白質、缺精氨酸、某些維生素缺乏等等,此外,高脂肪、高血脂、高糖、高蛋白導致的肥胖胰島素抵抗代謝綜合癥高尿酸血癥等等(建議點擊這些超鏈接查看),也可以出現高血壓。在研究非飲食因素如基因、環境(包括神經生理)方面的不少研究者往往忽視飲食成分(不懂營養)對血壓的干擾或者作用,這是非常可惜的。對于研究飲食因素的研究者當中,只關注含鹽量,而飼料中其他成分沒有得到有效控制,這同樣是可惜的。

下面,我們簡要介紹建立高血壓模型應當特別注意的幾個方面。

高血壓模型的對照組喂養飼料

不少研究者對對照組喂養的飼料存在兩個誤區。一是誤認為只要控制鹽含量,其他方面無所謂。二是錯誤使用普通喂養的飼料。關于第一個方面,上面已經說過,在第二個方面怎樣會不妥的呢?

普通喂養的飼料對于高血壓研究的動物來說,鹽含量偏高。有研究針對這個問題在大鼠中進行了觀察,如果把鹽含量降下來(但滿足基本需要),血壓也就低一些。因此,不論是否研究鈉或鹽的因素,復制任何高血壓模型,對照組含鹽量非常關鍵。

高血壓模型動物的注意點

飼料類型的選擇

既然影響血壓的飼料因素有多種,很顯然,要控制好飼料中的各種成分,包括已知的對血壓有影響的因素,以及尚未知是否影響血壓的其他因素。日糧型飼料(普通飼料)不容易控制,應當盡可能使用純化型的標準飼料。如果選擇這種類型的飼料,對照組喂養的飼料應當是采用AIN93標準的純化型飼料。

關于血壓測量

在體情況下測量血壓多采用測量尾血壓的方法。這種方法得到的血壓一般是收縮壓,這對于很多研究來說不理想,大家都明白,高血壓多以舒張壓為主作為診斷依據的,收縮壓除非出現很大變化,才能作為診斷高血壓的指標。因此,在動物模型中,用收縮壓的改變作為高血壓模型是勉強的。當然,如果針對收縮壓開展研究,或者與收縮壓關系密切的研究,這種方法倒是適合的。

研究者務必牢記,這種測量的干擾因素非常多,每天測量的時間、重復測量、測量時的環境、測量所用的設備都決定了測量的準確性和可靠性。

因此,我們建議,在實驗期結束時,應當盡可能使用生理記錄儀測量血管內壓力,也就是,動物在麻醉下血管插管,記錄血壓,這能夠幫助確認飼養期間所跟蹤的尾壓改變的可靠性,能夠作為血壓升高或者降低的有力證據。關于方法和設備,在高校的生理教研室、藥理教研室、病理生理教研室都有。

關于模型的時間

并不是說血壓升高了就是高血壓模型。當動物改變了飼料,血壓可能會發生改變。例如,當飼料中高鹽時,動物的血壓可能會升高一些,但很快會有所適應,在人體中也有這樣的現象。因此,飼料改變后的短期血壓改變不能作為血壓升高的依據,觀察時間應當盡可能長一些。


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