返回
當前專題

胡蘿卜素添加飼料、胡蘿卜素補充造模飼料和動物選擇
Carotene-supplemented diets and carotene-fortified diet

胡蘿卜素(carotene)根據存在于其兩端的芷香酮環或基團的種類有α,β,γ,δ,ε等不同的異構體。胡蘿卜素為脂溶性(油溶性),不溶于水。

胡蘿卜素不同異構體都能被機體用于合成維生素A,這種轉變取決于體內維生素A的狀態,因此,胡蘿卜素補充或強化后血漿胡蘿卜素濃度升高的幅度取決于動物體內維生素A的狀態。

一、胡蘿卜素補充或強化研究中所用模型飼料的要求和選擇

胡蘿卜素的研究中,應當根據研究設計決定模型飼料中維生素A含量要求。

如果研究中涉及胡蘿卜素補充或強化對維生素A合成的作用,則應當首先確定對模型飼料中維生素A的含量要求。

例如,當研究需要在維生素A處于低水平,或者缺乏時,應當采用無胡蘿卜素且維生素A缺乏的模型飼料作為基礎飼料,即點擊“維生素A缺乏飼料”頁面選擇相應的模型飼料。

又如,當研究需要飼料中維生素A處于過高水平時,則應當注意飼料中維生素A含量升高的程度。研究表明,飼料中維生素A含量對胡蘿卜素的吸收具有明顯影響。例如,大鼠在維生素A過多時,β-胡蘿卜素的吸收是9:1,明顯低于在飼料中維生素A缺乏或正常水平時的4:1。

特洛菲飼料科技有限公司
胡蘿卜素添加或強化用基礎飼料一覽表
模型飼料
代碼
使用動物 參考標準 模型飼料說明
TP 016CF01 大鼠,小鼠,地鼠,沙鼠 AIN93G標準 純化型
TP 016BF02 大鼠,小鼠,地鼠,沙鼠 AIN93G標準 化學定義型
TP 016CF03 大鼠,小鼠,地鼠,沙鼠 AIN93M標準 純化型
TP 016CF04 大鼠,小鼠,地鼠,沙鼠 AIN93M標準 化學定義型
TP 02CF001 豚鼠 NRC95標準 純化型
TP 03CF001 自定義 純化型
TP 04CF001 自定義 純化型
TP 05CF001 自定義 純化型
TP 06CF001 自定義 純化型
TP 07CF001 自定義 純化型
TP 08CF001 猴,其他非人靈長類 自定義 純化型

說明:如果以上不能滿足你的要求,請提出具體要求。

二、胡蘿卜素研究中的動物選擇

與人類相比,不同品種的動物對胡蘿卜素吸收存在很大的差異。目前,沒有哪一種實驗動物能夠完全模擬人類胡蘿卜素的吸收和代謝。因此,應當逐一根據不同的實驗動物的特點選擇所謂最理想的模型。

沙鼠、雪貂、小牛(preruminant calves)能夠吸收β-胡蘿卜素分子,其中,沙鼠和小牛能夠與人類類似地將β胡蘿卜素轉變為維生素A。

大鼠、小鼠雖然能夠有效地將β胡蘿卜素轉變為維生素A,但是,只有當飼料中的胡蘿卜素達到很高水平(非生理水平)才能有效地吸收β胡蘿卜素。

一般來說,小鼠、大鼠和雪貂可用于研究β-胡蘿卜素對癌癥作用的研究,而非人靈長類和沙鼠可能更適合研究心臟病方面的研究。。


參考文獻

Albanes, D., Heinined, O. P., Taylor, P. R., Vitamo, J., Edwards, B. K., Rautalahti, M., Hartman, A. M., Palmgren, J., Freedman, L. S., Haapakoske, J., Barrett, M. J., Pietinen, P., Malila, N., Tala, E., Liippo, K., Salomaa, E.-R., Tangrea, J. A., Teppo, L., Askin, F. B., Taskinen, E., Erozoan, Y., Greenwald, P. & Huttunen, J. K. (1996) α-Tocopherol and β-carotene supplements and lung cancer incidence in the alpha-tocopherol, beta-carotene cancer prevention study: Effects of base-line characteristics and study compliance. J. Nat. Cancer Inst. 88:1560-1570.

Bankson, D. D., Russell, R. M. & Sadowski, J. A. (1986) Determination of retinyl esters and retinol in serum or plasma by normal-phase liquid chromatography: method and applications. Clin. Chem. 32:35-40. 

Beems, R. B., Beek, L. v., Rutten, A.A.J.J.L. & Speek, A. J. (1987) Subchronic (106-day) toxicology and nutrition studies with vitamin A and β-carotene in Syrian hamsters. Nutr. Rep. Int. 35:765-770.

Bendich, A. (1989) Carotenoids and the immune response. J. Nutr. 119:112-115.

Bendich, A. & Shapiro, S. S. (1986) Effect of β-carotene and canthaxanthin on the immune responses of the rat. J. Nutr. 116:2254-2262.

Bierer, T. L., Merchen, N. R. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1995) Comparative absorption and transport of five common carotenoids in preruminant calves. J. Nutr. 125:1569-1577.

Biesalski, H. K. & Weiser, H. (1993) Comparative absorption and transport of five common carotenoids in preruminant calves. β-Carotene Supplements Cannot Meet All Vitamin A Requirements of Vitamin A-Deficient Rats New York Academy of Science New York, NY.

Block, G., Patterson, B. & Subar, A. (1992) Fruit, vegetable, and cancer prevention: a review of the epidemiological evidence. Nutr. Cancer 18:1-29.

Boileau, A. C., Merchen, N. R., Wasson, K., Atkinson, C. A. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1999) cis-Lycopene is more bioavailable than trans-lycopene in vitro and also in vivo in the lymph-cannulated ferret. J. Nutr. 129:1176-1181. 

Boileau, T.W.M., Moore, A. C. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1999) Carotenoids and Vitamin A in Human Health. Papas, A. M. eds. Antioxidant Status, Diet, Nutrition, and Health :133-158

Boca Raton, FL. Bond, M. G., Bullock, B. C., Belinger, D. A. & Hamm, T. E. (1980) Myocardial infarction in a large colony of nonhuman primates with coronary artery athersclerosis. Am. J. Pathol. 101:675-692.

Castenmiller, J.J.M. & West, C. E. (1998) Bioavailability and bioconversion of carotenoids. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 18:19-38.

Chew, B. P. (1993) Effects of supplemental β-carotene and vitamin A on reproduction in swine. J. Anim. Sci. 71:247-252.

Chew, B. P., Holpuch, D. M. & O’Fallon, J. V. (1984) Vitamin A and β-Carotene in bovine and porcine plasma, liver, corpora lutea, and follicular fluid. J. Dairy Sci. 67:1316-1322.

Chew, B. P., Park, J. S., Wong, T. S., Weng, B. C., Kim, H. W., Byrne, K. M., Hayek, M. G. & Reinhart, G. A. (1998) Role of dietary β-carotene in modulating cell-mediated and humoral immune response in dogs. FASEB J 12:A967 (abs.).

Chew, B. P., Wong, T. S., Michal, J. J., Standaert, F. E. & Heirman, L. R. (1991) Kinetic characteristics of β-carotene uptake after an injection of β-carotene in pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 69:4883-4891.

Corey, J. E. & Hayes, K. C. (1972) Cerebrospinal fluid pressure, growth, and hematology in relation to retinol status of the rat in acute vitamin A deficiency. J. Nutr. 102:1585-1594.

de Pee, S., Bloen, M. W., Gorstein, J., Sari, M., Satoto, , Yip, R. & Shrimpton, R., Muhilal (1998) Reappraisal of the role of vegetables in the vitamin A status of mothers in Central Java, Indonesia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68:1068-1074.

de Pee, S., West, C. E., Permaesih, D., Martuti, S. & Muhilal & Hautvast, J. G. (1998) Orange fruit is more effective than are dark-green, leafy vegetables in increasing serum concentrations of retinol and β-carotene in school children in Indonesia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 68:1058-1067.

DiFrancesco, L., Allen, O. B. & Mercer, N. H. (1990) Long-term feeding of casein or soy protein with or without cholesterol in Mongolian gerbils. Acta Cardiol 45:273-290. 

Dorey, C. K., Thomson, L., Kinert, K., Finger, M., Nichols, C., Cheng, K. & Craft, N. (1998) Effect of dietary zeaxanthin on age related changes in quail retinas. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 39:164 (abs.).

Erdman, J. W., Jr, Fahey, G. C., Jr & White, C. B. (1986) Effects of purified dietary fiber sources on β-carotene utilization by the chick. J. Nutr. 116:2415-2423.

Erdman, J. W., Jr, Thatcher, A. J., Hofmann, N. E., Lederman, J. D., Block, S. S., Lee, C. M. & Mokady, S. (1998) All-trans β-carotene is absorbed preferentially to 9-cis β-Carotene, but the latter accumulates in the tissues of domestic ferrets (Mustela purotius furo). J. Nutr. 128:2009-2013.

Erdman, S. E., Correa, P., Coleman, L. A., Schrenzel, M. D., Li, X. & Fox, J. G. (1997) Helicobacter mustelae-associated gastric MALT lymphoma in ferrets. Am. J. Pathol. 151:273-280.

Fawzi, W. W., Herrera, M. G., Willett, W. C., Amin, A. E., Nestel, P., Lipsitz, S., Spiegelman, D. & Mohamed, K. A. (1993) Vitamin A supplementation and dietary vitamin A in relation to the risk of xerophthalmia. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 58:385-391.

Fox, J. G., Dangler, C. A., Sager, W., Borkowski, R. & Gliatto, J. M. (1997) Helicobacter mustelea-associated gastric adenocarcinoma in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). Vet. Pathol. 34:225-229.

Gardner, E. M. & Ross, A. C. (1993) Dietary vitamin A restriction produces marginal vitamin A status in young rats. J. Nutr. 123:1435-1443.

Giovannucci, E., Ascherio, A., Rimm, E. B., Stampfer, M. J., Colditz, G. A. & Willett, W. C. (1995) Intake of carotenoids and retinol in relation to risk of prostate cancer. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 87:1767-1776.

Grolier, P., Agoudave, S. & Azais-Braesco, V. (1995) Comparative bioavailability of diet-, oil- and emulsion-based preparations of vitamin A and β-carotene in rats. Nutr. Res. 15:1507-1516.

Gugger, E. T., Bierer, T. L., Henze, T. M., White, W. S. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1992) β-Carotene uptake and tissue distribution in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). J. Nutr. 122:115-119.

Handelman, G. J., Snodderly, D. M., Adler, A. J., Russett, M. D. & Dratz, E. A. (1992) Measurement of carotenoids in human and monkey retinas. Methods Enzymol 213:220-230. 

Hoppe, D. P. & Schoner, F. J. (1987) Application of Carotenoids to Animal Nutrition and Bioavailibility of Synthetic β-Carotene in Laboratory Animals and Calves. 8th International Symposium on Carotenoids, Boston, MA (abs. 53).

Hoppe, P. P., Chew, B. P., Safer, A., Stegemann, I. & Biesalski, H. K. (1996) Dietary β-carotene elevates plasma steady-state and tissue concentrations of β-carotene and enhances vitamin A balance in preruminant calves. J. Nutr. 126:202-208.

House, W. A., Apgar, J. & Smith, J. C. (1997) The gerbil: a model for studying the metabolism of beta-carotene and minerals. Nutr. Res. 17:1293-1302.

Humphrey, J. H., West, K. P., Jr & Sommer, A. (1992) Vitamin A deficiency and attributable mortality among under-5-year olds. Bull. WHO 70:225-232. 

Jyonouchi, H., Zhang, L., Gross, M. & Tomita, Y. (1994) Immunomodulating actions of carotenoids: enhancement of in vivo and in vitro antibody production to T-dependent antigens. Nutr. Cancer 21:47-58.

Kim, H. W., Chew, B. P., Wong, T. S., Park, J. S., Weng, B. C., Byrne, K. M. & Hayek, B. G. (1998) Modulation of cell-mediated immunity by dietary lutein in dogs. FASEB J 12:A966 (abs.).

Kohlmeier, L. & Hastings, S. B. (1995) Epidemiologic evidence of a role of carotenoids in cardiovascular disease prevention. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62:1370S-1376S.

Krinsky, N. I., Mathews-Roth, M. M., Welankiwar, S., Sehgal, K., Lausen, N.C.G. & Russett, M. (1990) The metabolism of 14C-β-carotene and the presence of other carotenoids in rats and monkeys. J. Nutr. 120:81-87.

Kunert, K., Fitzgerald, M.E.C., Thomson, L., Cheng, K. & Dorey, C. K. (1997) Activated microglia among the photoreceptors in aging birds. Investig. Ophthalmol 39:561 (abs.).

Lederman, J. D., Overton, K. M., Hofmann, N. E., Moore, B. J., Thornton, J. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1998) Ferrets (Mustela putoius furo) inefficiently convert β-carotene to vitamin A. J. Nutr. 128:271-279. 

Lee, C. M., Lederman, J. D., Hofmann, N. E. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1998) The Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) is an appropriate animal for evaluation of the conversion of β-carotene to vitamin A. J. Nutr. 128:280-286.

Lingen, C., Ernster, L. & Lindberg, O. (1959) The promoting effect of lycopene on the non-specific resistance of animals. Exp. Cell Res. 16:384-393.

Mathews-Roth, M. M., Welankiwar, S., Sehgal, P. K., Lausen, N.C.G., Russett, M. & Krinsky, N. I. (1990) Distribution of 14C-canthaxanthin and 14C-lycopene in rats and monkeys. J. Nutr. 120:1205-1213.

Mayne, S. T. (1996) Beta-carotene, carotenoids, and disease prevention in humans. FASEB J 10:690-701. Abstract

Mittal, P. C. (1983) β-Carotene utilization in rats fed either vitamin A or carotene in early life. Nutr. Rep. Int. 28:181-188.

Moon, R. C. (1989) Comparative aspects of carotenoids and retinoids as chemopreventive agents for cancer. J. Nutr. 119:127-134.

Moore, A. C., Gugger, E. T. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1996) Brush border membrane vesicles from rats and gerbils can be used to study uptake of all-trans and 9-cis β-carotene. J. Nutr. 126:2904-2912.

Nagasawa, H., Mitamura, T., Sakamoto, S. & Yamamoto, K. (1995) Effects of lycopene on spontaneous mammary tumor development in SHN virgin mice. Anticancer Res 15:1173-1178.

Narisawa, T., Fukaura, Y., Hasebe, M., Ito, M., Aizawa, R., Murakoshi, M., Uemura, S., Khachik, F. & Nishino, H. (1996) Inhibitory effects of natural carotenoids, α-carotene, β-carotene, lycopene and lutein, on colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in rats. Cancer Lett 107:137-142.

Narisawa, T., Fukaura, Y, Haseve, M., Nomura, S., Oshima, S., Sakamoto, H., Inakuma, T., Ishiguro, Y., Takayasu, J. & Nishino, H. (1998) Prevention of N-methylnitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats by lycopene and tomato juice rich in lycopene. Jpn. J. Cancer Res. 89:1003-1008.

National Research Council (1989) Prevention of N-methylnitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats by lycopene and tomato juice rich in lycopene. Recommended Dietary Allowances 10th ed. National Academy Press Washington, DC.

Nicolosi, R. J., Marlett, J. A., Morrello, A. M., Flanagan, S. A. & Hegsted, D. M. (1981) Influence of dietary unsaturated and saturated fat on the plasma lipoproteins of Mongolian gerbils. Atherosclerosis 38:359-371.

Olson, J. A. (1999) Carotenoids. Shils, M. E. Olson, J. A. Shike, M. Ross, A. C. eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease :525-541.

Williams and Wilkins Baltimore, MD. Omenn, G. S., Goodman, G. E. & Thornquist, M. D. (1996) Effects of a combination of beta-carotene and vitamin A on lung cancer and cardiovascular disease. N. Eng. J. Med. 334:1150-1155. 

Pollack, J., Campbell, J. M., Potter, S. M. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1994) Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) absorb β-carotene intact from a test meal. J. Nutr. 124:869-873.

Poor, C. L., Bierer, T. L., Merchen, N. R., Fahey, G. C., Jr, Murphy, M. R. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1992) Evaluation of the preruminant calf as a model for the study of human carotenoid metabolism. J. Nutr. 122:262-268.

Poor, C. L., Miller, S. D., Fahey, G. C., Jr, Easter, R. A. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1987) Animal models for carotenoid utilization studies: evaluation of the chick and the pig. Nutr. Rep. Int. 36:229-234.

Pronczuk, A., Khosla, P. & Hayes, K. C. (1994) Dietary myristic, palmitic, and linoleic acids modulate cholesterolemia in gerbils. FASEB J 8:191-200.

Ribaya-Mercado, J. D., Fox, J. G., Rosenblad, W. D., Blanco, M. C. & Russell, R. M. (1992) β-Carotene, retinol and retinyl ester concentrations in serum and selected tissues of ferrets fed β-carotene. J. Nutr. 122:1898-1903.

Ribaya-Mercado, J. D., Holmgren, S. C., Fox, J. G. & Russell, R. M. (1989) Dietary β-carotene absorption and metabolism in ferrets and rats. J. Nutr. 119:665-668.

Roodenburg, A.J.C., West, C. E., Hovenier, R. & Beynen, A. C. (1995) Evaluation of a two-generation model for vitamin A deficiency and the interrelationship with iron metabolism. Br. J. Nutr. 74:689-700. 

Rosales, F. J. & Ross, A. C. (1998) Acute inflammation induces hyopretinemia and modifies the plasma and tissue response to vitamin A supplememtation in marginally vitamin A–deficient rats. J. Nutr. 128:960-966.

Santos, M. S., Meydani, S. N., Leka, L., Wu, D., Fotouhi, N., Meydani, M., Hennekens, C. H. & Gaziano, J. M. (1996) Natural killer cell activity in elderly men is enhanced by β-carotene supplementation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 64:772-777.

Sato, N., Gleave, M. E., Burchovsky, N., Rennie, P. S., Beralde, E. & Sullivan, L. D. (1997) A metastatic and androgen-sensitive human prostate cancer model using intraprostatic inoculation of LNCaP cells in SCID mice. Cancer Res 57:1584-1589.

Schwartz, J. & Shklar, G. (1987) Regression of experimental hamster cancer by beta carotene and algae extracts. J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg. 45:510-515.

Shapiro, S. S., Mott, D. J. & Machlin, L. J. (1984) Kinetic characteristics of β-carotene uptake and depletion in rat tissue. J. Nutr. 114:1924-1933.

Slifka, K. A., Bowen, P. E., Stacewicz-Sapontzakis, M. & Crissey, S. D. (1999) A survey of serum and dietary carotenoids in captive wild animals. J. Nutr. 129:380-390.

Snodderly, D. M. (1995) Evidence for protection against age-related macular degeneration by carotenoids and antioxidant vitamins. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 62:1448S-1461S.

Snodderly, D. M., Handelman, G. J. & Adler, A. J. (1991) Distribution on individual macular pigment carotenoids in central retina of macaque and squirrel monkeys. Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 32:268-279.

Snodderly, D. M., Russett, M. D., Land, R. I. & Krinsky, N. I. (1990) Plasma carotenoids of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis and Saimiri sciureus) fed a nonpurified diet. J. Nutr. 120:1663-1671.

Sommer, A. & West, K. P., Jr (1996) Plasma carotenoids of monkeys (Macaca fascicularis and Saimiri sciureus) fed a nonpurified diet. Vitamin A Deficiency: Health, Survival, and Vision :438 Oxford University Press New York, NY.

Steinmetz, K. A. & Potter, J. D. (1996) Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review. J. Am. Diet. Assoc. 96:1027-1039.

Sullivan, M. P., Cerda, J. J., Robbins, F. L., Burgin, C. W. & Beatty, R. J. (1993) The gerbil, hamster, and guinea pig as rodent modles of hyperlipidemia. Lab. Anim. Sci. 43:575-578. 

Sun, J., Giraud, D. W., Moxley, R. A. & Driskell, J. A. (1997) β-Carotene and α-tocopherol inhibit the development of atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Int. J. Vitam. Nutr. Res. 67:155-163. 

Tang, G., Dolnikowski, G. G., Blanco, M. C., Fox, J. G. & Russell, R. M. (1993) Serum carotenoids and retinoids in ferrets fed canthaxanthin. J. Nutr. Biochem. 4:58-63.

Tasker, T. E. & Potter, S. M. (1993) Effects of dietary protein source on plasma lipids, HMG CoA reductase activity, and hepatic glutathione levels in gerbils. J. Nutr. Biochem. 4:458-462.

Thatcher, A. J., Lee, C. M. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1998) Tissue stores of β-carotene are not conserved for later use as a source of vitamin A during compromised vitamin A status in Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus). J. Nutr. 128:1179-1185. 

Thompson, T. C., Truong, L. D., Timme, T. L., McCune, D.K.B.K., Flanders, K. C., Scardino, P. T. & Park, S. H. (1993) Transgenic models for the study of prostate cancer. Cancer 71:1165-1171.

Toyoda, Y., Sapunzatkis, M., Nichols, C., Cheng, K. & Dorey, C. K. (1996) Carotenoids in the quail retina. an animal for retinal carotenoids. Investig. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 36: (abs.).

Tyczkowski, J. K. & Hamilton, P. B. (1986) Evidence for differential absorption of zeacarotene, cryptoxanthin, and lutein in young broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 65:1137-1140. 

Van Vliet, T. (1996) Absorption of β-carotene and other carotenoids in humans and animal models. Eur. J. Clin. Nutr. 50:S32-S37.

Wang, J. Y., Owen, F. G. & Larson, L. L. (1988) Effect of beta-carotene supplementation on reproductive performance of lactating Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 71:181-186.

Wang, X.-D., Krinsky, N. I., Marini, R. P., Tang, G.-W., Yu, J., Hurley, R., Fox, J. G. & Russell, R. M. (1992) Intestinal uptake and lymphatic absorption of β-carotene in ferrets: a model for human β-carotene metabolism. Am. J. Physiol. 263:G480-G486. 

Wang, X.-D., Liu, C., Bronson, R. T., Smith, D. E., Krinsky, N. I. & Russell, R. M. (1999) Retiniod signaling and activator protein-1 expression in ferrets given β-carotene supplements and exposed to tobacco smoke. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 91:60-66. 

Wang, X.-D., Tang, G.-W., Fox, J. G., Krinsky, N. I. & Russell, R. M. (1991) Enzymatic conversion of β-carotene into β-apocarotenals and retinoids by human, monkey, ferret, and rat tissues. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 285:8-16. 

Warmer, W., Giles, A., Jr & Kornhauser, A. (1985) Accumulation of dietary β-carotene in the rat. Nutr. Rep. Int. 32:295-301.

White, W. S., Peck, K. M., Bierer, T. L., Gugger, E. T. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1993) Interactions of oral β-carotene and canthaxanthin in ferrets. J. Nutr. 123:1405-1413.

White, W. S., Peck, K. M., Ulman, E. A. & Erdman, J. W., Jr (1993) The ferret as a model for evaluation of the bioavailabilities of all-trans β-carotene and its isomers. J. Nutr. 123:1129-1139.

Williams, J. K., Anthony, M. S. & Clarkson, T. B. (1991) Coronary heart disease in rhesus monkeys with diet-induced coronary artery atherosclerosis. Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med. 115:784-790. 

Yap, S. C., Choo, Y. M., Hew, N. F. & Goh, S. H. (1997) Distribution of dietary palm carotenes and their metabolites in the rabbit. Nutr. Res. 17:1721-1731. 

Youping, G., Root, M. M., Parker, R. S. & Campbell, T. C. (1997) Effects of carotenoid-rich food extracts on the development of preneoplastic lesions in rat liver and in in vivo and in vitro antioxidant status. Nutr. Cancer 27:238-244.

Absorption, metabolism, and functions of β-cryptoxanthin. Nutr Rev 2016, 74: 69-82

β-Carotene-Producing Bacteria Residing in the Intestine Provide Vitamin A to Mouse Tissues In Vivo J. Nutr. 2014, 144: 608-613

Bioavailability of iron, zinc, and provitamin A carotenoids in biofortified staple crops. Nutr Rev 2014, 72: 289-307

β-Cryptoxanthin Restores Nicotine-Reduced Lung SIRT1 to Normal Levels and Inhibits Nicotine-Promoted Lung Tumorigenesis and Emphysema in A/J Mice. Cancer Prev Res 2013, 6: 309-320

BCDO2 acts as a carotenoid scavenger and gatekeeper for the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Development 2012 139: 2966-2977

Nutritional Aspects of Phytoene and Phytofluene, Carotenoid Precursors to Lycopene. Adv Nutr 2011, 2: 51-61

Digestive Stability of Xanthophylls Exceeds That of Carotenes As Studied in a Dynamic in Vitro Gastrointestinal System. J. Nutr. 2009, 139: 876-883

Animal Models in Nutrition Research. J. Nutr. 2008, 138: 391-396

β-Carotene from Red Carrot Maintains Vitamin A Status, but Lycopene Bioavailability Is Lower Relative to Tomato Paste in Mongolian Gerbils. J. Nutr. 2007, 137: 1395-1400

Carotenoid-Biofortified Maize Maintains Adequate Vitamin A Status in Mongolian Gerbils. J. Nutr. 2006, 136: 2562-2567

Issues to Consider for Preparing Ferrets as Research Subjects in the Laboratory. ILAR J 2006, 47: 348-357

Novel Lycopene Metabolites Are Detectable in Plasma of Preruminant Calves after Lycopene Supplementation. J. Nutr. 2005, 135: 2616-2621

Twice the Amount of {alpha}-Carotene Isolated from Carrots Is as Effective as β-Carotene in Maintaining the Vitamin A Status of Mongolian Gerbils. J. Nutr. 2005, 135: 2622-2626

[14C]-Lycopene and [14C]-Labeled Polar Products Are Differentially Distributed in Tissues of F344 Rats Prefed Lycopene. J. Nutr. 2003, 133: 4189-4195

Absorption and Conversion of 11,12-3H-β-Carotene to Vitamin A in Sprague-Dawley Rats of Different Vitamin A Status. J. Nutr. 2003, 133: 148-153

Isotopic tracer techniques for studying the bioavailability and bioefficacy of dietary carotenoids, particularly β-carotene, in humans: a review. Am J Clin Nutr 2003, 77: 12-28

Bioavailability of all-trans and cis-Isomers of Lycopene. Exp Biol Med (Maywood) 2002, 227: 914-919

The Ferret as a Model for Vitamin A Metabolism in Carnivores J. Nutr. 2002, 132: 1787S-1789

Tissue Lycopene Concentrations and Isomer Patterns Are Affected by Androgen Status and Dietary Lycopene Concentration in Male F344 Rats J. Nutr. 2000, 130: 1613-1618


有困惑?那就商量唄!

收藏本網站
丝瓜苹果下载ios二维码_丝瓜app官网版ios下载_丝瓜app向日葵app幸福宝