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動脈粥樣硬化模型


豬或微型豬動脈粥樣硬化模型飼料
和造模注意事項
Model Diet of Atherosclerosis for Pig or Miniature-Pig

家豬、微型豬(小型豬)都可以用于動脈粥樣硬化研究和造模。微型豬(mini-pig,miniature pig)身材小,模型飼料消耗量小,藥物或食品功能因子等干預因子需要量小,因此,常用于動脈粥樣硬化研究。

一、豬或微型豬動脈粥樣硬化模型造模的特點


豬作為人類動脈粥樣硬化模型動物,在以下方面非常類似人類:

(1)解剖、生理、病理生理、血脂代謝都與人類相似,血漿膽固醇主要在LDL中。

(2)血漿脂蛋白對模型飼料的反應與人類相似。

(3)動脈粥樣硬化發生部位與人類相似,從腹主動脈開始發生,向胸主動脈延伸,可以發生冠狀動脈粥樣硬化。

(4)與人類相似,當酯化膽固醇的比例較高時,游離膽固醇從血漿進入動脈壁。

(5)與人類相似,可以發生到動脈粥樣硬化高級階段,發生斑塊并且形成血栓。

豬作為人類動脈粥樣硬化的模型動物開展研究,需要解決以下缺點或不利:

(1)豬能夠自發發生動脈粥樣硬化,對照喂養的豬正常飼料要求較高,需要使用符合要求的普通飼料。

(2)豬有過食(overeat)行為,在長期喂養期間,成年豬容易過度肥胖而生長期豬生長過快。因此需要控制每天食量。

二、豬或微型豬動脈粥樣硬化模型造模方法


頸動脈動脈粥樣硬化模型

豬頸中部頸動脈結扎狹窄(左),在喂養高脂高膽固醇飼料后,頸動脈狹窄近端發生動脈粥樣硬化和斑塊。方法見:http://www.ajnr.org/content/27/9/1893.full

有三種方法:

(1)高脂高膽固醇模型飼料+自由飲食。

動脈粥樣硬化發展的速度慢,需要較長時間喂養,很難到達纖維冒階段。

(2)高脂高膽固醇模型飼料+氣囊牽拉性內膜損傷+自由飲食。

動脈粥樣硬化發展速度快,容易達到纖維化斑塊和纖維帽階段。

(3)高脂高膽固醇模型飼料+頸動脈狹窄(結扎)+自由飲食。

動脈粥樣硬化發展速度快,可在頸動脈狹窄處形成嚴重的硬化和纖維帽。

三、豬或微型豬動脈粥樣硬化模型造模用高脂高膽固醇模型飼料


高脂高膽固醇模型飼料分為兩類:

(1)高脂高膽固醇模型飼料中添加膽鹽

優點:膽鹽加快動脈粥樣硬化形成的進程和發展的嚴重程度,可以到達動脈粥樣硬化的高級階段。

缺點:膽鹽本身對動物機能發揮作用,甚至毒性作用。

(2)高脂高膽固醇模型飼料中不添加膽鹽

動脈粥樣硬化形成和發展速度較慢,難以到達動脈粥樣硬化高級階段。

下表列出的是南通特洛菲飼料科技有限公司提供的豬或微型豬動脈粥樣硬化模型飼料。

特洛菲飼料科技有限公司
家豬或微型豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料

日糧型

以下模型飼料是在本公司豬標準飼料(低脂)生產過程中添加脂肪和膽固醇,其正常對照飼料應當選用TP 2R001。

產品代碼    模型飼料名稱                說明

P3101:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,10%脂肪,2%膽固醇

P3103:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,12%脂肪,5%膽固醇,0.7%膽鹽

P3107:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,14%脂肪,4%膽固醇,1%膽鹽

P3105:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,15%脂肪,2%膽固醇

P3110:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,15%脂肪,1.5%膽固醇

P3113:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,17%脂肪,2%膽固醇

P3115:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,17%脂肪,4%膽固醇

P3120:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,20%脂肪,4%膽固醇,1.5%膽鹽

P3005:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,21%脂肪,2%膽固醇,0.7%膽鹽

P3130:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,30%脂肪,4%膽固醇,2.5%膽鹽

如果以上模型飼料不能滿足你的要求,請提出!

純化型

以下模型飼料是純化日糧,價格相對較高。

產品代碼    模型飼料名稱                說明

P3401:豬純化型標準飼料           低脂肪,用于對照喂養

P3410:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,40%(熱量)脂肪,2%膽固醇,0.7%膽堿

P3401:豬高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,40%(熱量)脂肪,2%膽固醇

如果以上模型飼料不能滿足你的要求,請提出!

四、豬或微型豬動脈粥樣硬化模型飼料選擇注意事項


1. 動脈粥樣硬化模型的決定因素 

動脈粥樣硬化的形成速度和發展的程度,取決于:

(1)豬的品種、年齡、性別;

(2)模型方法;

(3)模型飼料中脂肪含量、膽固醇和膽鹽的含量。

(4)喂養時間。

因此,在研究設計階段,應當對以上方面進行論證后綜合確定研究方案。必要時,可以尋求南通特洛菲飼料科技有限公司技術部的技術支持。

2.對照飼料應當與模型飼料匹配

應當注意,對照飼料的類型應當與模型飼料的類型匹配,都是日糧型,或者,都是純化型。只有在研究特殊的情況下,模型飼料采用純化型,對照飼料采用日糧型。

3.對照飼料應當是低脂型豬標準飼料而不應當是普通喂養的豬飼料

應當明白,市場上銷售的豬飼料是為追求養殖的效果(最大化生長速度)而生產的,而且其中成分極其復雜,因此,不適合用于動脈粥樣硬化模型飼料的配制,也不適合用于對照喂養。

不要想當然地自己配制豬模型飼料和對照飼料

有的研究者想當然地這樣做:對照飼料采用市場上的豬養殖飼料,用豬養殖飼料添加脂肪、膽固醇等做成模型飼料。

請注意這樣的事實:養殖飼料完全是追求商業利益和最大化豬生長速度而生產,其中的原料和成分極其復雜,影響實驗的因素很多,不同企業生產的養殖飼料在原料、添加劑方面相差又很大。

請注意這樣的要求:動脈粥樣硬化模型的對照飼料應當是低脂肪、無膽固醇的符合實驗動物標準的豬飼料,而模型飼料(日糧型)應當是使用這樣的飼料為基礎,除了添加脂肪和膽固醇(以及膽鹽)外,還應當平衡蛋白質、碳水化合物、纖維、維生素和礦物質等等,因此,配比要求和生產技術要求都很高。

4.關于造模開始前的適應期和喂養方法

在研究設計中,應當特別注意造模前需要適應期,其目的不僅僅是讓動物適應環境,還包括從原來不符合實驗動物要求的豬養殖飼料喂養的機能狀態的調整到實驗動物應有的機能狀態,這個期間應當使用對照飼料進行喂養。豬適應期應當至少10天。

5.關于藥物或食品功能因子的添加

如果實驗中需要口服藥物或者食品功能因子,應當盡可能在喂養前添加到飼料中,因為豬吃的是液體飼料,添加方便。如果藥物或者食品功能因子比較穩定,不受飼料中成分的影響,那么,可以在飼料生產過程中添加。

五、動脈內膜損傷方法


如果單純喂模型飼料,只能達到脂質條紋期。如果希望進一步發展到動脈粥樣硬化中期表現(斑塊期),一般采用定點血管內膜牽拉性損傷,即向動脈插入帶有一根末端帶有氣囊的導管,通過加壓使得氣囊膨大,導致動脈局部牽拉性損傷。為了保障不同動物的動脈牽拉性損傷程度一致,不同動物中氣囊內壓力要相同。

對于上述描述中有不清楚之處或者其他注意事項,請與南通特洛菲飼料科技有限公司技術部聯系。

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