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Clinton-Cybulsky高脂肪高膽固醇模型飼料的
特點、存在的問題與糾正
Clinton-Cybulsky Diet for Western Diet Model

Clinton-Cybulsky高脂肪高膽固醇模型飼料的種類
【1】40%脂肪、1.25%膽固醇、0.5%膽酸(膽鹽)飼料。
【2】40%脂肪、1.25%膽固醇飼料。
【3】40%脂肪、0.5%膽固醇飼料。

ResearchDiets公司將這個模型飼料的名稱以Clinton和Cybulsky來命名,這讓我們不解。實際上,在第一次用這個模型飼料的研究者當中,第一作者和通訊作者都不是其人。

一、Clinton-Cybulsky diet


Clinton-Cybulsky模型飼料是高脂肪高膽固醇模型飼料,包括(1)含1.25%膽固醇和0.5%膽鹽;(2)1.25%膽固醇、不加膽鹽;(3)0.5%膽固醇、不加膽鹽。目的是比較動物對不加膽鹽、不同膽固醇情況下的反應。實際上,其中添加1.25%膽固醇、0.5%膽鹽的模型飼料就是Paigen飼料,用于后兩種模型飼料對比用的。因此,嚴格意義上,Clinton-Cybulsky模型飼料只是第二種和第三種模型飼料。

二、Clinton-Cybulsky diet的特點、用途和缺點


Clinton-Cybulsky高脂肪高膽固醇模型飼料的用途

廣泛應用于多種動物或不同品系的高血脂模型高膽固醇血癥模型胰島素抵抗模型II型糖尿病模型代謝綜合癥模型非酒精性脂肪肝模型膽結石模型動脈粥樣硬化模型、血管內皮細胞損傷或炎癥,等等。請注意不同種系和品系的差異。

Clinton-Cybulsky模型飼料 的脂肪熱量40%,膽固醇0.5%或1.25%。由于脂肪熱量為40%,一方面飼料總熱量不是很高,另一方面,這個飼料的脂肪水平在高脂飼料當中屬于中等,并且比較符合西方飲食。此外,模型飼料中糖的含量不高,對于大鼠、小鼠等動物來說,屬于可接受的水平。總的來說,Clinton-Cybulsky模型飼料屬于高脂肪、高膽固醇飼料。

Clinton-Cybulsky模型飼料應用非常廣泛,主要原因是,可以根據使用的動物對模型飼料的敏感程度進行選擇。主要用途見右圖。

然而,Clinton-Cybulsky模型飼料最初計主要是針對未成年動物的喂養,如果使用成年動物,就需要重新設計。此外,ResearchDietsg公司在最初設計該模型飼料時營養素就不合理,有關缺點見下圖。

Clinton-Cybulsky高脂肪高膽固醇模型飼料的缺點
(1)營養素不合理,需要優化。
(2)飼料成分數據不準確。
(3)只適用于未成年、妊娠、哺乳期的大小鼠。成年期使用需要重新設計。

ResearchDiets、TestDiet公司和南通特洛菲飼料科技有限公司提供的Clinton-Cybulsky模型飼料的代碼見下表。

不同公司Clinton-Cybulsky模型飼料代碼表
公司
1.25%膽固醇,0.5%膽鹽
1.25%膽固醇
0.5%膽固醇
對照飼料
說明
ResearchDiets
D12109
D12108
D12107
D12102
一直沿用,未優化
TestDiet
58R7
58R6
58R5
58R0
一直沿用,未優化
南通特洛菲
TP28540
TP28541
TP28542
TP28548, TP28549
與以上公司相同,沒有優化
南通特洛菲
TP28500
TP28501
TP28502
TP28508, TP28509
優化,用于未成年,妊娠期、哺乳期)
南通特洛菲
TP28520
TP28521
TP28522
TP28528, TP28529
專門設計,用于成年

三、特洛菲飼料科技有限公司提供的Clinton-Cybulsky高脂高膽固醇模型飼料的策略


從上表看到,針對Clinton-Cybulsky高脂高膽固醇模型飼料存在的問題,特洛菲飼料科技有限公司采取了優化、不優化和重新設計三種辦法讓研究者選擇。尤其是,重新設計的針對成年期喂養的模型飼料為研究成年動物提供了方便。


References:

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[26] Tang EH, Shvartz E, Shimizu K, Rocha VZ, Zheng C, Fukuda D, Shi GP, Sukhova G, Libby P.Deletion of EP4 on bone marrow-derived cells enhances inflammation and angiotensin II-induced abdominal aortic aneurysm formation.Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Feb;31(2):261-9.

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[29] Zhu SN, Chen M, Jongstra-Bilen J, Cybulsky MI. GM-CSF regulates intimal cell proliferation in nascent atherosclerotic lesions.J Exp Med. 2009 Sep 28;206(10):2141-9.

[30] Packard RR, Maganto-García E, Gotsman I, Tabas I, Libby P, Lichtman AH. CD11c(+) dendritic cells maintain antigen processing, presentation capabilities, and CD4(+) T-cell priming efficacy under hypercholesterolemic conditions associated with atherosclerosis.Circ Res. 2008 Oct 24;103(9):965-73.

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[33] Gotsman I, Grabie N, Gupta R, Dacosta R, MacConmara M, Lederer J, Sukhova G, Witztum JL, Sharpe AH, Lichtman AH. Impaired regulatory T-cell response and enhanced atherosclerosis in the absence of inducible costimulatory molecule.Circulation. 2006 Nov 7;114(19):2047-55.

[34] Wu L, Vikramadithyan R, Yu S, Pau C, Hu Y, Goldberg IJ, Dansky HM. Addition of dietary fat to cholesterol in the diets of LDL receptor knockout mice: effects on plasma insulin, lipoproteins, and atherosclerosis.J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2215-22.

[35] Paulson KE, Zhu SN, Chen M, Nurmohamed S, Jongstra-Bilen J, Cybulsky MI. Resident intimal dendritic cells accumulate lipid and contribute to the initiation of atherosclerosis.Circ Res. 2010 Feb 5;106(2):383-90.

[36] Sales VL, Sukhova GK, Lopez-Ilasaca MA, Libby P, Dzau VJ, Pratt RE. Angiotensin type 2 receptor is expressed in murine atherosclerotic lesions and modulates lesion evolution.Circulation. 2005 Nov 22;112(21):3328-36.

[37] Jacobs RL, Stead LM, Devlin C, Tabas I, Brosnan ME, Brosnan JT, Vance DE. Physiological regulation of phospholipid methylation alters plasma homocysteine in mice.J Biol Chem. 2005 Aug 5;280(31):28299-305.

[38] Soccio RE, Adams RM, Maxwell KN, Breslow JL. Differential gene regulation of StarD4 and StarD5 cholesterol transfer proteins. Activation of StarD4 by sterol regulatory element-binding protein-2 and StarD5 by endoplasmic reticulum stress. J Biol Chem. 2005 May 13;280(19):19410-8.

[39] Sukhova GK, Zhang Y, Pan JH, Wada Y, Yamamoto T, Naito M, Kodama T, Tsimikas S, Witztum JL, Lu ML, Sakara Y, Chin MT, Libby P, Shi GP. Deficiency of cathepsin S reduces atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.J Clin Invest. 2003 Mar;111(6):897-906.

[40] Sukhova GK, Wang B, Libby P, Pan JH, Zhang Y, Grubb A, Fang K, Chapman HA, Shi GP. Cystatin C deficiency increases elastic lamina degradation and aortic dilatation in apolipoprotein E-null mice.Circ Res. 2005 Feb 18;96(3):368-75.

[41] Buono C, Pang H, Uchida Y, Libby P, Sharpe AH, Lichtman AH. B7-1/B7-2 costimulation regulates plaque antigen-specific T-cell responses and atherogenesis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient mice.Circulation. 2004 Apr 27;109(16):2009-15.

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[46] Buono C, Come CE, Witztum JL, Maguire GF, Connelly PW, Carroll M, Lichtman AH.Influence of C3 deficiency on atherosclerosis.Circulation. 2002 Jun 25;105(25):3025-31.

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[48] Abidi P, Chen W, Kraemer FB, Li H, Liu J. The medicinal plant goldenseal is a natural LDL-lowering agent with multiple bioactive components and new action mechanisms.J Lipid Res. 2006 Oct;47(10):2134-47.

[49] Iiyama K, Hajra L, Iiyama M, Li H, DiChiara M, Medoff BD, Cybulsky MI. Patterns of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression in rabbit and mouse atherosclerotic lesions and at sites predisposed to lesion formation.Circ Res. 1999 Jul 23;85(2):199-207.

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有困惑?那就商量唄!

高脂肥胖、代謝綜合癥、胰島素抵抗、高血脂(高甘油三酯血癥、高膽固醇血癥)、糖尿病、動脈粥樣硬化、非酒精性脂肪肝,等模型飼料

南通特洛菲飼料科技有限公司提供各種動物、各種類型的肥胖及其并發癥的模型飼料。

---------《》-------

大鼠小鼠Clinton-Cybulsky高脂高膽固醇模型飼料(TP28500系列):

markerTP28540, TP28541, TP28542

TP28540含0.5%膽鹽、1.25%膽固醇;TP28541含1.25%膽固醇;TP28542含0.5%膽固醇。

沒有優化,分別與Lichtman等使用的ResearchDiets公司D12109、D12108、D12017相當,或者分別與TestDiet公司58R7、58R6、58R5相當。為追求與這些模型飼料相當的研究者設計。用于未成年、妊娠哺乳期。

markerTP28500, TP28501, TP28502

TP28500含0.5%膽鹽、1.25%膽固醇;TP28501含1.25%膽固醇;TP28502含0.5%膽固醇。

營養素優化到合理水平,使研究更可靠。用于未成年、妊娠、哺乳期。

markerTP28520, TP28521, TP28522

TP28520含0.5%膽鹽、1.25%膽固醇;TP28521含1.25%膽固醇;TP28522含0.5%膽固醇。

專門針對成年動物設計,用于成年期喂養。

marker不同脂肪類型

如果希望改用其他脂肪類型,可以進行修改,相應的飼料代碼在《選擇指南》中做了說明。




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