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動脈粥樣硬化模型


Pigeon(鴿子)

鴿子動脈粥樣硬化模型飼料
和造模注意事項
Model Diet of Atherosclerosis in Pigeon

在1959年已經報道鴿子動脈粥樣硬化。各種鴿子隨著年齡都能逐漸自發發生動脈粥樣硬化,主要發生部位是在腹腔動脈和腹主動脈分叉處。高膽固醇模型飼料喂養后,動脈粥樣硬化可以發生在胸主動脈、腹主動脈、頭臂動脈、髂動脈、頸動脈、腎動脈、冠狀動脈,等等部位。

一、鴿子動脈粥樣硬化模型造模的特點


鴿子應用于動脈粥樣硬化造模時,有以下方面的表現:

(1)鴿子的模型飼料中膽固醇含量在一定范圍內可以決定鴿子的血漿膽固醇濃度、動脈粥樣硬化發生的時間和發展的速度與程度。注意,這個“一定范圍內”指的是,能夠有效升高血漿膽固醇的飼料膽固醇含量,到飼料中膽固醇含量達到某個水平。這個范圍在不同種類的鴿子中是不同的。

(2)鴿子對高脂高膽固醇模型飼料敏感,如果脂肪類型和模型飼料確當設計,可以加重和加快動脈粥樣硬化的發生和發展(見下文)。

(3)動脈粥樣硬化容易發展到脂質條紋期和斑塊階段,如果喂養時間足夠長,可以形成纖維化和纖維帽(是否與種類的差別?)。

(4)鴿子不僅可以多部位發生動脈粥樣硬化,而且最為顯著的特點是容易發生冠狀動脈粥樣硬化。

二、鴿子動脈粥樣硬化模型造模方法和關鍵點


鴿子雖然容易發生動脈粥樣硬化,但要注意以下方面:

1.不同種類鴿子對模型飼料的敏感性差別較大。

幾乎所有種類的鴿子都能被誘導出動脈粥樣硬化,但種類之間差異明顯。例如,White Carneau pigeons白鴿是最敏感和最容易發生動脈粥樣硬化的鴿子,而賽鴿(Racing Homer pigeons或 Show Racers)容易發生冠狀動脈粥樣硬化,但主動脈部位比較輕,因此,用于冠狀動脈粥樣硬化模型比較理想。

2. 不同種類鴿子發生動脈粥樣硬化的速度不同。

相同的模型飼料,喂養不同種類的鴿子,高膽固醇血癥和動脈粥樣硬化發生和發展的速度不同。

3. 模型飼料中膽固醇含量、喂養時間和動脈粥樣硬化的程度

模型飼料中膽固醇含量越高,動脈粥樣硬化形成需要的喂養時間越短。但是,膽固醇含量過高時,血漿膽固醇可能會輕度下降。

三、鴿子動脈粥樣硬化模型飼料


包括高膽固醇模型飼料、高脂高膽固醇模型飼料。

1. 鴿子動脈粥樣硬化用高膽固醇模型飼料

鴿子動脈粥樣硬化所用的高膽固醇模型飼料中,膽固醇含量一般需要至少0.025%。但是,要注意的是,不同品種的鴿子對模型飼料中膽固醇的最低要求是不同的。

以下是南通特洛菲飼料科技有限公司生產的可用于動脈粥樣硬化的高膽固醇模型飼料的情況。

特洛菲飼料科技有限公司
鴿子高膽固醇模型飼料

日糧型

以下模型飼料是在本公司鴿子標準飼料(低脂)生產過程中添加膽固醇,其正常對照飼料應當選用相應的低脂型標準飼料。

產品代碼     模型飼料名稱                   說明

TP 3P002:鴿子高膽固醇模型飼料,0.25%膽固醇

TP 3P004:鴿子高膽固醇模型飼料,0.5%膽固醇

TP 3P005:鴿子高膽固醇模型飼料,0.75%膽固醇

TP 3P008:鴿子高膽固醇模型飼料,1%膽固醇

如果以上模型飼料不能滿足你的要求,請提出!

純化型

以下模型飼料是純化日糧,價格相對較高。

TP 3P102:鴿子高膽固醇模型飼料,0.25%膽固醇

TP 3P104:鴿子高膽固醇模型飼料,0.5%膽固醇

TP 3P105:鴿子高膽固醇模型飼料,0.75%膽固醇

TP 3P108:鴿子高膽固醇模型飼料,1%膽固醇

如果以上模型飼料不能滿足你的要求,請提出!

2. 鴿子動脈粥樣硬化用高脂肪高膽固醇模型飼料

鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料可以強勁地使得鴿子發生高膽固醇血癥和動脈粥樣硬化。因此,建議研究者優先選用。

然而,飼料中決定鴿子動脈粥樣硬化的因素很多,鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料的設計需要了解這些決定因素,因此,在沒有這些方面相關研究進展的情況下,應當選用可靠的模型飼料。下表列出的是南通特洛菲飼料科技有限公司提供的鴿子動脈粥樣硬化的高脂高膽固醇模型飼料。

特洛菲飼料科技有限公司
鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料

日糧型

以下模型飼料是在本公司鴿子標準飼料(低脂)生產過程中添加脂肪和膽固醇,其正常對照飼料應當選用相應的低脂型標準飼料。

產品代碼     模型飼料名稱                  說明

TP 3P202:鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,10%脂肪,0.25%膽固醇

TP 3P204:鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,10%脂肪,0.5%膽固醇

TP 3P205:鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,10%脂肪,0.75%膽固醇

TP 3P208:鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,10%脂肪,1%膽固醇

如果以上模型飼料不能滿足你的要求,請提出!

純化型

以下模型飼料是純化日糧,價格相對較高。

產品代碼    模型飼料名稱                   說明

TP 3P302:鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,10%脂肪,0.25%膽固醇

TP 3P304:鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,10%脂肪,0.5%膽固醇

TP 3P305:鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,10%脂肪,0.75%膽固醇

TP 3P308:鴿子高脂高膽固醇模型飼料,10%脂肪,1%膽固醇

如果以上模型飼料不能滿足你的要求,請提出!

對于上述描述中有不清楚之處或者其他注意事項,請與南通特洛菲飼料科技有限公司技術部聯系。

References:

Anderson, J. L., C. M. Ashwell, S. C. Smith, R. Shine, E. C. Smith and R. L. Taylor, Jr. "Atherosclerosis-Susceptible and Atherosclerosis-Resistant Pigeon Aortic Cells Express Different Genes in Vivo." Poult Sci 92, no. 10 (2013): 2668-80.

Barr, D. A., W. G. Jerome and J. C. Lewis. "Morphologic Characteristics of Naturally Occurring Atherosclerosis in the Brachiocephalic Artery of the Pigeon." Exp Mol Pathol 54, no. 2 (1991): 99-111.

Boyd, C. D., J. Y. Song, A. C. Kniep, H. S. Park, C. Fastnacht, E. C. Smith and S. C. Smith. "A Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism in the Pigeon Pro Alpha 2(1) Collagen Gene: Lack of an Allelic Association with an Atherogenic Phenotype in Pigeons Genetically Susceptible to the Development of Spontaneous Atherosclerosis." Connect Tissue Res 26, no. 3 (1991): 187-97.

Clair, R. W., J. J. Toma, Jr. and H. B. Lofland. "Proline Hydroxylase Activity and Collagen Content of Pigeon Aortas with Naturally-Occurring and Cholesterol-Aggravated Atherosclerosis." Atherosclerosis 21, no. 2 (1975): 155-65.

Cramer, E. B. and S. C. Smith. "Yolk Lipids of Developing Atherosclerosis Susceptible White Carneau and Atherosclerosis Resistant Show Racer Pigeon Embryos." J Nutr 106, no. 5 (1976): 627-30.

Curwen, K. D. and S. C. Smith. "Heparitin Sulfates (Heparan Sulfates) of Atherosclerosis-Susceptible and Atherosclerosis-Resistant Pigeon Aortas." Atherosclerosis 27, no. 1 (1977): 113-7.

Denholm, E. M. and J. C. Lewis. "Monocyte Chemoattractants in Pigeon Aortic Atherosclerosis." Am J Pathol 126, no. 3 (1987): 464-75.

Fronek, K. and N. Alexander. "Genetic Difference in the Sympathetic Nervous Activity and Susceptibility to Atherosclerosis in Pigeon." Atherosclerosis 39, no. 1 (1981): 25-33.

Gerritsen, M. E. and M. P. Printz. "Prostaglandin E2 Synthesis in Pigeon Aorta: Comparison of Atherosclerosis-Resistant (Show Racer) and Atherosclerosis-Prone (White Carneau) Breeds." Artery 8, no. 1 (1980): 56-62.

Hajjar, D. P. and S. C. Smith. "Focal Differences in Bioenergetic Metabolism of Atherosclerosis-Susceptible and -Resistant Pigeon Aortas." Atherosclerosis 36, no. 2 (1980): 209-22.

Hansen, J. "Spontaneous Atherosclerosis: An Ultrastructural Study in the White Carneau Pigeon." Virchows Arch A Pathol Anat Histol 375, no. 2 (1977): 147-57.

Hogg, S. I. and A. Cryer. "Analysis and Lipoprotein Lipase Activation Capacity of Plasma Lipoproteins Isolated from Atherosclerosis-Susceptible White Carneau Pigeon and Atherosclerosis-Resistant Show Racer Pigeon." Comp Biochem Physiol B 79, no. 2 (1984): 251-4.

Lewis, J. C., V. Fuster and B. A. Kottke. "Thrombocytes in Atherosclerosis-Resistant and Atherosclerosis-Susceptible Breeds of Pigeon: A Comparative Ultrastructural Study." Exp Mol Pathol 25, no. 3 (1976): 332-43.

Lewis, J. C. and B. A. Kottke. "Endothelial Damage and Thrombocyte Adhesion in Pigeon Atherosclerosis." Science 196, no. 4293 (1977): 1007-9.

Lewis, J. C., R. G. Taylor, N. D. Jones and D. Grimes. "Vascular Endothelium in Pigeon Coronary Atherosclerosis." Scan Electron Microsc, no. 3 (1979): 823-8.

Lewis, J. C., R. G. Taylor, N. D. Jones, R. W. St Clair and J. F. Cornhill. "Endothelial Surface Characteristics in Pigeon Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis. I. Cellular Alterations During the Initial Stages of Dietary Cholesterol Challenge." Lab Invest 46, no. 2 (1982): 123-38.

Lewis, J. C., R. G. Taylor and K. Ohta. "Lysosomal Alterations During Coronary Atherosclerosis in the Pigeon: Correlative Cytochemical and Three-Dimensional Hvem/Ivem Observations." Exp Mol Pathol 48, no. 1 (1988): 103-15.

Lofland, H. B., T. B. Clarkson, L. Rhyne and H. O. Goodman. "Interrelated Effects of Dietary Fats and Proteins on Atherosclerosis in the Pigeon." J Atheroscler Res 6, no. 4 (1966): 395-403.

McCullagh, K. G. and L. A. Ehrhart. "Enhanced Synthesis and Accumulation of Collagen in Cholesterol-Aggravated Pigeon Atherosclerosis." Atherosclerosis 26, no. 3 (1977): 341-52.

Prichard, R. W., T. B. Clarkson and H. B. Lofland. "Estrogen in Pigeon Atherosclerosis. Estradiol Valerate Effects at Several Dose Levels on Cholesterol-Fed Male White Carneau Pigeons." Arch Pathol 82, no. 1 (1966): 15-7.

Prichard, R. W., T. B. Clarkson, H. B. Lofland and H. O. Coodman. "Pigeon Atherosclerosis." Am Heart J 67, (1964): 715-7.

Revis, N. W., R. Bull, D. Laurie and C. A. Schiller. "The Effectiveness of Chemical Carcinogens to Induce Atherosclerosis in the White Carneau Pigeon." Toxicology 32, no. 3 (1984): 215-27.

Revis, N. W., T. C. Major and C. Y. Horton. "The Effects of Calcium, Magnesium, Lead, or Cadmium on Lipoprotein Metabolism and Atherosclerosis in the Pigeon." J Environ Pathol Toxicol 4, no. 2-3 (1980): 293-303.

Schwenke, D. C. and R. W. St Clair. "Accumulation of 125i-Tyramine Cellobiose-Labeled Low Density Lipoprotein Is Greater in the Atherosclerosis-Susceptible Region of White Carneau Pigeon Aorta and Further Enhanced Once Atherosclerotic Lesions Develop." Arterioscler Thromb 12, no. 4 (1992): 446-60.

Souadjian, J. V., B. A. Kottke and J. L. Titus. "Estrogen Effect on Spontaneous Atherosclerosis. Experimental Studies in White Carneau Pigeon." Arch Pathol 85, no. 5 (1968): 463-7.

St Clair, R. W. "Metabolic Changes in the Arterial Wall Associated with Atherosclerosis in the Pigeon." Fed Proc 42, no. 8 (1983): 2480-5.

St Clair, R. W., M. A. Leight and H. A. Barakat. "Metabolism of Low Density Lipoproteins by Pigeon Skin Fibroblasts and Aortic Smooth Muscle Cells. Comparison of Cells from Atherosclerosis-Susceptible and Atherosclerosis-Resistant Pigeons." Arteriosclerosis 6, no. 2 (1986): 170-7.

Subbiah, M. T., B. A. Kottke and I. A. Carlo. "Experimental Studies in the Spontaneous-Atherosclerosis-Susceptible White Carneau Pigeon: Nature of Biliary and Fecal Neutral Steroids." Mayo Clin Proc 45, no. 10 (1970): 729-37.

Subbiah, M. T., B. A. Kottke, I. A. Carlo and K. M. Weaver. "Bile Salts of Spontaneously Atherosclerosis-Susceptible White Carneau Pigeon." Steroids 17, no. 4 (1971): 509-19.

Wagner, W. D. "Aortic Glycopeptide Sialic Acid, Hexose and Hexosamine in a Genetically Selected (Wc-2) Strain of Atherosclerosis-Susceptible Pigeon." Atherosclerosis 34, no. 1 (1979): 1-11.

Wagner, W. D., T. B. Clarkson, M. A. Feldner and R. W. Prichard. "The Development of Pigeon Strains with Selected Atherosclerosis Characteristics." Exp Mol Pathol 19, no. 3 (1973): 304-19.

 



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